THE GODS OF EGYPT
A primeval god, he was
adopted as the god of Thebes. He was considered to be the
force of the wind and as a creator god, associated with fertility. He was the force of nature, the giver of life itself. He
is sometimes pictured as a goose. The curved horn ram was his sacred animal. In the New Kingdom,
he is shown as a man with feathers upon a flat hat.
She is depicted as a
woman wearing an unusual tall crown of ostrich feathers. She can be seen on the walls of the temple of Ramses 11 at Abu-Simbel. She is the
protectress of the river and sometimes called the daughter of RA.
The principle god of
the dead, before it was taken over by Osiris, who descended into the land of the dead. Anubis, along with Nepthys and Isis, restored the body of Osiris through mummification. At the time of death, he weighed the heart
of the person against the feather symbol of Maat, goddess of truth. High priests often wore masks of Anubis while performing
the funeral rites. His color is black, the color of regeneration. He is portrayed as a jackal-headed man or a jackal.
He was the sun-god, creator
of all things, he was known before the best knowm sun-god RA. He was depicted as the setting sun. The cult of Amun held that
only Atum and Osiris would survive the flood that would signal the end of mankind and earth. Seen as the setting sun, animals
such as the lion, bull, lizard and snake were associated with ATUM.
This was the lion goddess
but then became the cat goddess while Sekhmet took over the lion goddess role. All Egyptians loved cats and they were considered
sacred to the god RA. Cats were often mummified and buried at Bubastis,
the sacred place of Bastet. Appears as a cat or a woman with a cats head.
It is usually shown as
a man of dwarf size, facing forward wearing the mask and tail of a lion and carrying
a knife. It is also associated with protection of the household, children and pregnant women.
This was the personification
of earth. The dead entered into Geb, plants were born of Geb. Geb with NUT produced the sun and so was considered the father
of the gods, and passed his authority onto his son Osiris and then to Horus, who gave it to the king. Appears as a man, with
a goose on his head.
This is the god of the
Nile. As the Nile provided the essentials of life in the
desert, he represents the fullness of life. He was a thick-chested man, adorned with marsh flowers and papyrus plants.
The god Horus came to
rest on the breast of this goddess each night before he was reborn at dawn. Hathor was deeply loved by the general population
especially women who thought of her as the wife, mother and lover. She is seen as a great cow, suckling Horus and thus the
two lands. The temple at Dendera is her centre. She is seen as a woman with cows horns and a moon.
He was the solar god
and brother of Seth. He was also the son of Osiris and Isis. He was conceived when Isis revivied
his fathers dead body and born to avenge his father against his brother seth. He was thought to have had 4 sons, Imset, Hapi,
Qebehsenuf and Duamuttef, who help to guide the dead, the canopic jars that held the vital organs were made in his sons likenesses.
He is seen as the falcon or falcon-bearded man. His eyes are the sun and the moon. The eye of the moon was the eye lost in
battle with Seth. The eye of Horus charm is considered protection against evil.
Her name means throne
and mother of Horus by Osiris. She became a protector of seaman with the ancient Greeks. She is closely associated with Hathor,
so has her attributes, with the sun disc, the ureacus of royalty, the horns of Hathor and falcon wings on either side of her
He was the primeval god
who created himself. He was a manifestation of Atum but then became equated to Re. This god rose from the netherowrld with
each dawn, having been born of Nut, the sky, he sets forth from the eastern horizon, moving across the sky heading for the
moon god, Khons. He is seen as a beetle or scarab.
He was considered the
guardian of the source of the Nile. He was considered to be the craftsman of mankind. Sometimes
incorporates Heket, goddess of birth, Re, the sun and heaven, Shu, the air and Osiris, the netherworld and Geb, the earth.
A ram headed man represented with four heads. Shown as a potter forming humans on potters wheels.
He was called the traveller
because he moved across the night sky. He was the god of the moon. His father was Amun, mother of Mut, so his brothers were
shu, who supported the sky and the royal god Horus. He watched over night travellers and protected people against wild animals.
Carries the Pharoahs crook and flail and had a falcon head and crescent moon or sun disc on top of his head. As protector,
is shown on top of a crocodile.
Maat is the goddess of
truth, justice and natural order. She was the food and drink of Re. Pharaohs were often shown holding out a statue of Maat.
The feather of maat was the symbol of truth. Shown as a woman with a single feather balanced ontop of her head.
This is depicted as a
woman wearing the double crown of Kemets rulers. Her temple was at Karnak and housed the great statues and sacred processional
boats which went up the Nile to the great temple at Karnak every year.
This one is seen in the
old kingdom riding the night boat of the underworld. Her hair is compared to the strips of cloth in a shroud. She is now associated
with the newly dead and the relatives as the Lady with Wings who comforts them.
Nut is personified sky
and especially the starry sky of night-time. Nut is often depicted as a tall or long woman bending over the body of her husband
Geb, coloured blue and spangled with 5 point stars.
The best known of all
Gods, he was once a fertility god, then adopted the properties of a royal god and acquired the crook and flail of a pharaoh.
As he brought forth the earths abundance, food, wine, he became known as the perfect one or the eternally good. At his death
he became ruler of the netherworld. Later Horus emerged as the son of Osiris and the living pharaoh became the incarnation
of Horus and the dead.
One of the four sons
of heru depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Wesir in the underworld. He is depicted as the hawk-headed
mummified human on furniture and canopic jars.
Ra is the Netjer of light, life and heat and the power inherent in the sun. he lives within the actual disc of the
sun, which rises and sets each day, riding from horizon to horizon on the back of Nut.
Depicted as a cobra or
as a woman with a cobras head, is protectress of Lower Kemet. She represents the cyclical
nature of time and that which is foreordained as destiny or fate.
The embodiment of strength
and became jealous of his brother Osiris and killed him. Seth was the god of the desert while Osiris was god of vegetation
and regeneration. Irons and metals found in the earth were his bones. More detail is between the two brothers. Horus was the
avenger of his father Osiris. Seth lost his testicles and Horus lost an eye, Thoth stopped the fight. Shown as a ramheaded
man wearing a pharaohs crown, his arms swing aggressively.
Shu had issued forth
from the creator god as breath from the nose. His wife Tefnut, goddess of moisture and dew, the pair embodied the basic elements
of life. Shu was with the sun, Tefnut with the moon, their children were sky goddess Nut and earth god Geb. Shown with a lions
head or with feathers on his head.
This means crocodile
in the ancient language. It was believed that the sweat from his body, became the nile so he carried with him certain Osirian
traits such as regeneration and rebirth. He appealed as to the exact spiritual embodiment of the powerful crocodiles in the
Nile. Seen as a croc, a croc with a falons head and double crown.
The star Sirius was deified
as a goddess. The Egyptians were aware that the Egyptian calender would correct itself every four years. A Sothic cycle was
1460 years. The new year corresponded with the rise of this star. Shown as a woman with a star on top of her head. Or as a
large dog and sometimes associated with Isis.
This was the hippo goddess
oversaw childbirth. Protector during childbirth, holds back wild wind storms, especially those at sea. Seen as a hippo standing
upright with human arms and legs. She holds an ankh and sometimes a torch.
Daughter of Shu, sometimes
associated with the lion, usually it is with the uraeus and came to be known as the lady of the flame. Seen as a solar eye
but more often as a uraeus on the headdress of gods and pharaohs.
He was the lord of the
moon and acquired the title of silver Aten. Said to have sprung from the head of Seth, he is an embodiment of the power of
darkness. The god who invented writing. An ibis headed man writing on a tablet with a pen. As a baboon with a sundic, set
in a crescent moon on his head, with a writing palette.