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THE TEMPLES OF ABU SIMBEL

 

Abu Simbel is the location of two of the most fantastic structures of Ancient Egypt the huge rock-cut temples of Rameses II (1279-1213bc0 and his queen Nefertari (1300-1250bc). Rameses ordered these temples to be cut from the solid rock of the hillside. The largest temple is dedicated to the gods amun-Ra, Ra-Horakhty, Ptah and the deified Rameses II.

 

Two pairs of 21 metre high seated figures of Rameses II flank the entrance and dominate the temple fašade.  These were the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The falcon headed god Ra-Horakhty stands in a niche above the main entrance together with the goddess Maat and a sceptre of power, symbolizing the throne name of the ruler.

 

The small temple dedicated to Nefertari and hathor has six 10 metre high statues. Four show Rameses II and the other two show his queen Nefertari. The queen wears the symbols of the goddess hathor the double feathered crown with cow horns and the disc of the sun.

 

You enter a huge hall flanked by eight huge  statue pillars which depict Rameses as the god Osiris. Then you enter a smaller hall leading to a hallway and sanctuary, which holds the seated figures of Rameses, Ptah, Amun-Ra and Ra-Horakhty. In Nefertaris you have six statues of Hathor, a hallway and sanctuary. The interior wall carvings celebrate Rameses many military victories and show them in religious rituals.

 

After the construction of the Aswan Dam in the 60s, the temples were threatened by the rising water levels of Lake Nassar and had to be cut in blocks and moved 180 metres inland and raised 65 metres to higher ground.

 

The Sphinx 

 

 

The sphinx, was long considered to have been built during the 4th dynasty with the great pyramids. Now the age of the sphinx is in question, some of the rock erosion patterns on the body of the sphinx suggest that they were caused by flowing water from rainfall. The last time that rainfall was abundent in Ancient Egypt was about 10500 years ago ! Who knows !

 

Why is the head of the sphinx not proper in size as related to it's body ? One theory put forth was that the head, being out of the sand for a long period of time,while the body was covered with sand, became very eroded due to the wind and sand, while the body did not. The ancient egyptians decided to re-carve the head and by doing so made it smaller due to having to remove some of the eroded stone. The real questions is; what did the head look like before the ancient egyptians re-carved it. Is it the same, only smaller, or is it completely different than the original head ?

 

Edgar Rice Cayce predicted in the 1930's that a Hall of Records would be found in a chamber beneath the paws of the Sphinx sometime between 1998-2001 that when revealed will astonish the World!!!!! This prediction was made 40 YEARS before a cavity was determined to be 50 feet below ground, between the paws of the Sphinx. Exploration of this chamber has yet to be allowed by the egyptian government!

A piece of the beard from the Sphinx has been found tucked away in a glass case in a corner of the British Museum!

 

PHILAE

 

Philae Temple was dismantled and reassembled (on Agilika Island about 550 meters from its original home on Philae Island) in the wake of the High Dam. The temple, dedicated to the goddess Isis, is in a beautiful setting which has been landscaped to match its original site. It's various shrines and sanctuaries, which include The Vestibule of Nectanebos I which is used as the entrance to the island, the Temple of the Emperor Hadrian, a Temple of Hathor, Trajan's Kiosk (Pharaohs Bed), a birth house and two pylons celebrate all the deities involved in the Isis and Osiris myth. The Victorian world fell in love with the romance of the Temple. But at night you can also visit the Sound and Light Show, a magical experience as floodlit buildings are silhouetted against the volcanic rocks and water surrounding them. So today, Philae is more fun then every before.

 

Although antiquities on the island date between the 26th Dynasty and the Roman Period, most of the work is from that of the Roman. This was a time of immense popularity of the Goddess Isis, and this was her island, where pilgrims would come from all over the Mediterranean. Construction on the island took place over an 800 year span, and it was one of the last strongholds of Ancient Egyptian Religion which continued to flourish here into the 6th Century. When the Temples where finally closed by Justinian in A.D 550, it ended 4,000 years of worship of the pagan gods.

 

The Philae Temple complex, prior to its removal and restoration, set alongside Biga Island. To the ancient Egyptians, Biga was the sacred mound, the first ground created from Nun out of Chaos. This was the legendary burial place of Osiris. The earth was considered to be part of his body so that only priests and temple servants were permitted to live there.

 

 

TOMB OWNER DYNASTY TOMB OWNER DYNASTY

 

 

KV 1 Ramesses VII 20 KV 32 Unknown 18

 

KV 2 Ramesses IV 20 KV 33 Unknown 18

 

KV 3 Constructed for a son of Ramesses III 20 KV 34 Tuthmosis III 18

 

KV 4 Ramesses XI 20 KV 35 Amenhotep II 18

 

KV 5 Sons of Ramesses II 19 KV 36 Maiherperi 18

 

KV 6 Ramesses IX 20 KV 37 Unknown 18

 

KV 7 Ramesses II 19 KV 38 Tuthmosis I 18

 

KV 8 Merenptah 19 KV 39 Unknown 18

 

KV 9 Ramesses V/VI 20 KV 40 Unknown 18

 

KV 10 Amenmeses 19 KV 41 Unknown 18

 

KV 11 Ramesses III 20 KV 42 Unknown 18

 

KV 12 Unknown 18 KV 43 Tuthmosis IV 18

 

KV 13 Bay 19 KV 44 Unknown 18

 

KV 14 Tausert / Setnakht 19 KV 45 Unknown 18

 

KV 15 Seti II 19 KV 46 Yuya and Thuya 18

 

KV 16 Ramesses I 19 KV 47 Siptah 19

 

KV 17 Seti I 19 KV 48 Amenemopet 18

 

KV 18 Ramesses X 20 KV 49 Unknown 18

 

KV 19 Mentuherkhepshef 20 KV 50 Unknown 18

 

KV 20 Thutmoses I/ Hatshepsut 18 KV 51 Unknown 18

 

KV 21 Unknown 18 KV 52 Unknown 18

 

WV 22 Amenhotep III 18 KV 53 Unknown 18

 

WV 23 Ay 18 KV 54 Unknown 18

 

WV 24 Unknown 18 KV 55 Amarna Cache 18

 

WV 25 Unknown 18 KV 56 Unknown 18

 

KV 26 Unknown 18 KV 57 Horemheb 18

 

KV 27 Unknown 18 KV 58 Unknown 18

 

KV 28 Unknown 18 KV 59 Unknown 18

 

KV 29 Unknown 18 KV 60 Unknown 18

 

KV 30 Unknown 18 KV 61 Unknown 18

 

KV 31 Unknown 18 KV 62 Tutankhamun 18